HDP Careers: Education

Education is the development of individuals' capacity to be productive members of society, by teaching and learning specific knowledge, beliefs, and skills. The word “education” is often used to refer to formal education; however, it covers a range of experiences, from formal learning to the building of understanding and knowledge through day to day experiences. Formal education provides instruction and training in both academic and technical subjects, and requires a broad range of careers from teachers to counselors to administrators in order to accomplish this task.  Because school attendance is compulsory until at least age 16 in all 50 States and the District of Columbia, elementary, middle, and secondary schools are the most numerous of all educational establishments.

Education and Human Development

Learning and acquiring knowledge is inherently developmental: from learning to use language, to forming cognitive relationships in infancy, to learning to read and write. Learning is a life-span process and heavily shaped by environment. The amount and type of education that individuals receive are a major influence on both the types of jobs they are able to hold, their earnings, and their ability to support education for their families. Lifelong learning is important in acquiring new knowledge and upgrading one’s skills, particularly in this age of rapid technological and economic changes. One of the advantages to studying human development in addition to a traditional teaching program is that development seeks to answer the mechanisms by which we learn, rather than just instruction in “how to” teach.

Training and Credentialing

Entry level-positions, such as teacher assistants, require minimum training requirements ranging from two years of postsecondary education, to an associate’s degree, or passing a State approved examination, in order to be eligible for Title I under the No Child Left Behind act. Professors who teach at 4-year colleges and universities generally must have a doctoral or other terminal degree. At 2-year colleges, however, most positions are held by teachers with a master’s degree. Kindergarten, elementary, middle, and secondary school teachers must have a bachelor’s degree and complete an approved teacher training program. All States require public school teachers to be licensed. Many States offer alternative licensure programs for people who have bachelor’s degrees in the subject they will teach, but lack the education courses required for a regular license. Teachers in private schools do not have to meet State licensing standards; however, schools prefer candidates who have a bachelor’s degree in the subject they intend to teach. With additional education or certification, teachers may become school librarians, reading specialists, curriculum specialists, or guidance counselors. Special education teachers have many of the same requirements as regular school teachers. In addition, most States require specialized training in special education.  School counselors are required to hold State school counseling certification; a master’s degree is generally required, and some States also require public school counselors to have teaching certificates and a number of years of teaching experience in addition to a counseling certificate. Education administrators generally also have related teaching experience or education.

Career Descriptions

Teaching: Preschool

Preschool teachers educate and care for children, usually ages 3 to 5, who have not yet entered kindergarten. They teach reading, writing, science, and other subjects in a way that young children can understand.Preschool teachers work in public and private schools, childcare centers, and charitable organizations. Many work the traditional 10-month school year, but some work the full year. Education and training requirements vary based on settings and state regulations. They range from a high school diploma and certification to a college degree.

Median Salary Minimum Education Level Job Growth outlook
$27,130/year Associate's degree Faster than average

For More Information

US Dept of Labor Occupational Outlook Handbook:

Preschool teachers
http://www.bls.gov/ooh/education-training-and-library/preschool-teachers.htm

Trade Organizations (including lists of graduate programs):
 
National Association for the Education of Young Children

For more information about professional credentials, visit
Council for Professional Recognition
National Child Care Association

In the State of California:
http://www.ctc.ca.gov/credentials/CREDS/child-dev-permits.html

Teaching: Kindergarten and Elementary

Kindergarten and elementary school teachers prepare younger students for future schooling by teaching them basic subjects such as math and reading. Kindergarten and elementary school teachers work in public and private schools. They generally work school hours when students are present and use nights and weekends to prepare lessons and grade papers. Most kindergarten and elementary school teachers do not work during the summer. Kindergarten and elementary school teachers must have at least a bachelor’s degree. In addition, public school teachers must have a state-issued certification or license.

Median Salary Minimum Education Level Job Growth outlook
$53,090/year Bachelor’s degree As fast as average

For More Information

US Dept of Labor Occupational Outlook Handbook:

Kindergarten and elementary school teachers
http://www.bls.gov/ooh/education-training-and-library/kindergarten-and-elementary-school-teachers.htm

Trade Organizations (including lists of graduate programs):
Teach.org
American Federation of Teachers
National Education Association

For more information about teacher preparation programs, visit
Council for the Accreditation of Educator Preparation

For more information about alternative certification programs, visit
Teach-Now

Teaching: Middle School

Middle school teachers educate students, typically in sixth through eighth grades. Middle school teachers help students build on the fundamentals they learned in elementary school and prepare them for the more difficult curriculum they will face in high school. Middle school teachers work in public and private schools. They generally work school hours when students are present, and use nights and weekends to prepare lessons and grade papers. Most do not work during the summer. Middle school teachers must have at least a bachelor’s degree. In addition, public school teachers must have a state-issued certification or license.

Median Salary Minimum Education Level Job Growth outlook
$53,430/year Bachelor’s degree As fast as average

For More Information

US Dept of Labor Occupational Outlook Handbook:

Middle school teachers
 http://www.bls.gov/ooh/education-training-and-library/middle-school-teachers.htm

Trade Organizations (including lists of graduate programs):
Teach.org
American Federation of Teachers
National Education Association

For more information about teacher preparation programs, visit
Council for the Accreditation of Educator Preparation

For more information about alternative certification programs, visit
Teach-Now

Teaching: High School (Secondary)

High school teachers help prepare students for life after graduation. They teach academic lessons and various skills that students will need to attend college and to enter the job market.High school teachers work in either public or private schools. Generally, they work school hours, which vary somewhat, but most also work evenings and weekends to prepare lessons and grade papers. However, most do not teach during the summer.High school teachers must have a bachelor’s degree. In addition, public school teachers must have a state-issued certification or license, which may require an academic background in the subject(s) they will be certified to teach.

Median Salary Minimum Education Level Job Growth outlook
$55,050/year Bachelor’s degree Slower than average

For More Information

US Dept of Labor Occupational Outlook Handbook:

High school teachers
 http://www.bls.gov/ooh/education-training-and-library/high-school-teachers.htm

Trade Organizations (including lists of graduate programs):
Teach.org
American Federation of Teachers
National Education Association

For more information about teacher preparation programs, visit
Council for the Accreditation of Educator Preparation

For more information about alternative certification programs, visit
Teach-Now

Teaching: Postsecondary Education & Academia

Postsecondary teachers instruct students in a wide variety of academic and vocational subjects beyond the high school level. They also conduct research and publish scholarly papers and books.Postsecondary teachers work in public and private colleges and universities, professional schools, junior or community colleges, and career and vocational schools. Outside of class time, their schedules are generally flexible, and they may spend that time in administrative, student advising, and research activities.Educational requirements vary with the subject taught and the type of educational institution. Most commonly, postsecondary teachers must have a Ph.D. However, a master's degree may be enough for some postsecondary teachers at community colleges. In technical and trade schools, work experience may be important for getting a postsecondary teaching job.

Median Salary Minimum Education Level Job Growth outlook
$68,970/year Master's degree Faster than average

For More Information

US Dept of Labor Occupational Outlook Handbook:

Postsecondary teachers
http://www.bls.gov/ooh/education-training-and-library/postsecondary-teachers.htm

Trade Organizations (including lists of graduate programs):
Council of Graduate Schools
Association for Career and Technical Education

By Speciality, from O*NET:
Geography Teachers, Postsecondary
Chemistry Teachers, Postsecondary
Atmospheric, Earth, Marine, and Space Sciences Teachers, Postsecondary
Forestry and Conservation Science Teachers, Postsecondary
Biological Science Teachers, Postsecondary
Agricultural Sciences Teachers, Postsecondary
Engineering Teachers, Postsecondary
Architecture Teachers, Postsecondary
Mathematical Science Teachers, Postsecondary
Computer Science Teachers, Postsecondary
Business Teachers, Postsecondary
Philosophy and Religion Teachers, Postsecondary
History Teachers, Postsecondary
Foreign Language and Literature Teachers, Postsecondary
English Language and Literature Teachers, Postsecondary
Communications Teachers, Postsecondary
Art, Drama, and Music Teachers, Postsecondary
Social Work Teachers, Postsecondary
Law Teachers, Postsecondary
Criminal Justice and Law Enforcement Teachers, Postsecondary
Library Science Teachers, Postsecondary
Physics Teachers, Postsecondary
Anthropology and Archeology Teachers, Postsecondary
Area, Ethnic, and Cultural Studies Teachers, Postsecondary
Economics Teachers, Postsecondary
Environmental Science Teachers, Postsecondary
Political Science Teachers, Postsecondary
Psychology Teachers, Postsecondary
Sociology Teachers, Postsecondary
Social Sciences Teachers, Postsecondary, All Other
Health Specialties Teachers, Postsecondary
Nursing Instructors and Teachers, Postsecondary
Education Teachers, Postsecondary

Teaching: Special Education

Special education teachers work with students who have a wide range of learning, mental, emotional, and physical disabilities. They adapt general education lessons and teach various subjects, such as reading, writing, and math, to students with mild and moderate disabilities. They also teach basic skills, such as literacy and communication techniques, to students with severe disabilities.Most special education teachers work in public schools, teaching students at the preschool, elementary, middle, and high school level. Others work in private schools, childcare services, and other institutions. Many work the traditional 10-month school year, but some work year round.Special education teachers in public schools are required to have a bachelor’s degree and a state-issued certification or license. Teachers in private schools also need a bachelor’s degree, but may not be required to have a state license or certification.

Median Salary Minimum Education Level Job Growth outlook
$55,060/year Bachelor’s degree slower than average

For More Information

US Dept of Labor Occupational Outlook Handbook:

Middle school teachers
 http://www.bls.gov/ooh/education-training-and-library/middle-school-teachers.htm

Trade Organizations (including lists of graduate programs):

For more information about special education teachers, visit
Council for Exceptional Children
Personnel Improvement Center

For more information about teaching and becoming a teacher, visit
Teach.org
American Federation of Teachers
National Education Association

For more information about alternative certification programs, visit
Teach-Now

O*NET

Special Education Teachers, Middle School
Special Education Teachers, Secondary School
Special Education Teachers, Kindergarten and Elementary School
Special Education Teachers, Preschool

School Counseling: K-12

School counselors help students develop social skills and succeed in school.  They work in public and private schools. Career counselors work in colleges, government agencies and career centers, and private practices. Most school counselors must be credentialed and have a master’s degree in school counseling or a related field. The specific duties of school counselors vary with the ages of the students they work with.

Elementary school counselors focus on helping students develop skills, such as decision-making and study skills, that they need to be successful in their social and academic lives. They meet with parents or guardians to discuss their child’s strengths, weaknesses, and any possible special needs and behavioral issues. School counselors also work with teachers and administrators to ensure the curriculum addresses both the developmental and academic needs of students.

Middle school counselors work with students and parents to help students develop and achieve career and academic goals. They help students develop the skills and strategies necessary to succeed academically and socially.

High school counselors advise students in making academic and career plans. Many help students with personal problems that interfere with their education. They help students choose classes and plan for their lives after graduation. Counselors provide information about choosing and applying for colleges, training programs, financial aid, and apprenticeships. They may present career workshops to help students search and apply for jobs, write résumés, and improve interviewing skills.

Median Salary Minimum Education Level Job Growth outlook
$62,970/year Master’s degree As fast as sverage

For More Information

US Dept of Labor Occupational Outlook Handbook: School and Career Counselors
http://www.bls.gov/ooh/community-and-social-service/school-and-career-counselors.htm

Trade Organizations (including lists of graduate programs):
For more information about counseling and information about counseling specialties, visit
American Counseling Association

For more information about school counselors, visit
American School Counselors Association

For more information about career counselors, visit
National Career Developers Association

For more information about state credentialing, visit
National Board for Certified Counselors

O*NET
Educational, Guidance, School, and Vocational Counselors

School Counseling: Postsecondary

Postsecondary school counselors help students set realistic academic and career goals, and develop a plan to achieve them. They evaluate students’ abilities and interests through aptitude assessments, interviews, and individual planning, They also collaborate with teachers and administrators to help students succeed, deliver guidance on careers after graduation, and refer students to resources outside the school for additional support. Most school counselors must have a master’s degree in school counseling or a related field.

Median Salary Minimum Education Level Job Growth outlook
$49,110/year Master’s degree As fast as sverage

For More Information

US Dept of Labor Occupational Outlook Handbook: School and Career Counselors
http://www.bls.gov/ooh/community-and-social-service/school-and-career-counselors.htm

Trade Organizations (including lists of graduate programs):
For more information about counseling and information about counseling specialties, visit
American Counseling Association

For more information about school counselors, visit
American School Counselors Association

For more information about career counselors, visit
National Career Developers Association

For more information about state credentialing, visit
National Board for Certified Counselors

O*NET
Educational, Guidance, School, and Vocational Counselors

Career Counseling

Career counselors assist people with the process of making career decisions by helping them choose a career or educational program. Career counselors work in colleges, government agencies and career centers, and private practices. Most career counselors have a master’s degree. Career counselors who work in private practices may also need a license.

Career counselors work with clients at various stages in their careers. Some work in colleges to help students choose a major. They also help students determine what jobs they are qualified for with their degrees. These counselors also work with people who have already entered the workforce. Career counselors develop plans to improve their client’s current career and provide advice about entering a new profession. Some career counselors work in outplacement firms and assist laid-off workers with transitioning into new jobs or careers. Others work in corporate career centers to assist employees in making decisions about their career path within the company.

Median Salary Minimum Education Level Job Growth outlook
$53,610/year Master’s degree As fast as sverage

For More Information

US Dept of Labor Occupational Outlook Handbook: School and Career Counselors
http://www.bls.gov/ooh/community-and-social-service/school-and-career-counselors.htm

Trade Organizations (including lists of graduate programs):
For more information about counseling and information about counseling specialties, visit
American Counseling Association

For more information about school counselors, visit
American School Counselors Association

For more information about career counselors, visit
National Career Developers Association

For more information about state credentialing, visit
National Board for Certified Counselors

O*NET
Educational, Guidance, School, and Vocational Counselors

School Psychologist

School psychologists apply psychological principles and techniques to education-related and developmental issues. They may address student learning and behavioral problems; design, implement, and evaluate performances; and counsel students and families. They may also consult with other school-based professionals to suggest improvements to teaching, learning, and administrative strategies. School psychologists need an advanced degree and certification or licensure to work. The advanced degree is most commonly the specialist degree (Ed.S. degree, which requires a minimum of 60 graduate semester hours and a 1,200-hour supervised internship), a doctoral degree in school psychology, or in some instances, a master’s degree. School psychologists’ training includes coursework in both education and psychology, because their work addresses education and mental health components of students’ development.


Median Salary Minimum Education Level Job Growth outlook
$67,650/year Master’s degree Faster than average

For More Information

US Dept of Labor Occupational Outlook Handbook:

School Psychologists  http://www.bls.gov/ooh/Life-Physical-and-Social-Science/Psychologists.htm

Trade Organizations(including lists of graduate programs):

For more information on careers for school psychologists, visit
National Association of School Psychologists

For more information on state licensing requirements, visit
Association of State and Provincial Psychology Boards

For more information on careers in all fields of psychology, visit
American Psychological Association

For more information about psychology specialty certifications, visit
American Board of Professional Psychology

Educational Administration: School Principals

Elementary, middle, and high school principals are responsible for managing all school operations. They manage daily school activities, coordinate curricula, and oversee teachers and other school staff to provide a safe and productive learning environment for students. Principals work in public and private elementary, middle, and high schools. Most principals work year round. Principals typically need a master’s degree in education administration or leadership. Most principal positions require candidates to have work experience as a teacher.

Median Salary Minimum Education Level Job Growth outlook
$60,050/year Master’s degree As fast as average

For More Information

US Dept of Labor Occupational Outlook Handbook: School Principals
http://www.bls.gov/ooh/management/elementary-middle-and-high-school-principals.htm

Trade Organizations(including lists of graduate programs):
For more information on elementary, middle, and high school principals, visit
National Association of Elementary School Principals
National Association of Secondary School Principals

O*NET
Education Administrators, Elementary and Secondary School

Educational Administration: Instructional Coordinators

Instructional coordinators oversee school curriculums and teaching standards. They develop instructional material, coordinate its implementation with teachers and principals, and assess its effectiveness. Instructional coordinators work in elementary and secondary schools, and various education institutions, such as colleges, professional schools, and education support services. They typically work year-round. Instructional coordinators need a master’s degree and related work experience, such as teaching or school administration. Coordinators in public schools may be required to have a state-issued license.

Median Salary Minimum Education Level Job Growth outlook
$60,050/year Master’s degree As fast as average

For More Information

US Dept of Labor Occupational Outlook Handbook: Instructional Coordinators
http://www.bls.gov/ooh/education-training-and-library/instructional-coordinators.htm

Trade Organizations(including lists of graduate programs):
For more information about instructional coordinators, visit
Learning Forward

O*NET
Instructional Designers and Technologists
Instructional Coordinators

Educational Administration: Postsecondary and Academia

Postsecondary education administrators oversee student services, academics, and faculty research at colleges and universities. Their job duties vary depending on the area of the college they manage, such as admissions, student life, or the office of the registrar. Postsecondary education administrators work in colleges, universities, community colleges, and technical and trade schools. Most work full time. Although a bachelor’s degree may be acceptable for some entry-level positions, a master’s degree or Ph.D. is often required. Employers often want candidates who have experience working in the field, especially for occupations such as registrars and academic deans.

Median Salary Minimum Education Level Job Growth outlook
$86,490/year Master’s degree Faster than average

For More Information

US Dept of Labor Occupational Outlook Handbook: Postsecondary education administrators
http://www.bls.gov/ooh/management/postsecondary-education-administrators.htm

Trade Organizations(including lists of graduate programs):
For more information on registrars or admissions counselors, visit
American Association of Collegiate Registrars and Admissions Officers

For more information about education administrators specializing in student affairs, visit
NASPA: Student Affairs Administrators in Higher Education

O*NET
Education Administrators, Postsecondary